Latest News (April 2016)
I’m pleased to point you in the direction of a new comprehensive website covering all aspects of the Palembang and Muntok internees compiled by David Man. Thanks to Judy Balcombe for passing that information on.
Judy also sent on to me a photo (below) of the completed grave at Kampong Menjelang with the plaques with names of the British and Australian internees who died in Muntok (the Dutch graves are now in Jakarta).
Judy Balcombe has written a summary of her recent return to Muntok and Palembang with other relatives of those who died there. They took with them plaques as memorials to the internees and attended the opening of the new Peace Museum at Muntok.
Return to Muntok and Palembang by Judy Balcombe (PDF)
Above: Two large baskets of bougainvillea petals were blessed and sprinkled on the grave at Muntok Town Cemetery.
Read on for the story of The Lost Graves of Muntok
Most of the civilian women who died in the Japanese internment camps in Sumatra (and were the inspiration for Lavinia Warner’s Tenko) were reburied in maintained cemeteries in Jakarta and have headstones that can still be visited today, but this is not the case for the dead of the infamous Muntok camp on Banka Island. After the war they were removed from their shallow graves near the camp and reburied, but in 1960 the Dutch asked the British to move their Muntok cemetery graves so that the Indonesians could use the land for building purposes.
Not in their Royal Charter:
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission elected to rebury the military personnel but left the civilian victims where they were, as it is not in their Royal Charter to move or safeguard civilian graves. In 1980, when a petrol station was built on the site, almost exactly over the part of the cemetery where the British graves had stood, and the remains of the some of the civilian women and men were found, it was assumed by locals that they were military personnel and they were reburied in a shared plot bearing this incorrect description.
The dead without a memorial:
Amongst those civilian women and men who died at Muntok who still do not have a memorial or individual headstones are Ruth Russell-Roberts, a former model (on whom Lavinia Warner partly based the Tenko character Rose Millar), and Mary Brown the mother of Shelagh Brown (later Lea) who survived the camps and was one of the women whom Warner interviewed and befriended before she put Tenko together. Shelagh sought to redress the matter of her mother’s grave throughout her life. That objective has now been taken up by her daughter Margaret ‘Margie’ Caldicott.
‘Let Us Not Forget‘:
In 1966 Shelagh Lea wrote a piece which eloquently captures how saddened and dismayed she felt at the abandonment of the graves of her mother and her friends whom she lost in the Muntok camp. You can read ‘Let Us Not Forget’ here.
Recent commemoration activity:
See the latest news section above for the efforts of the relatives of the civilian internees and the people of Muntok to ensure that these graves are lost no more.
There follows a memorial roll of those civilian women and men who died in the Muntok camp between 1944 and 1945 whose graves were not moved to Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemeteries. Although their graves were abandoned they will never be forgotten by their descendants.
N.B. The graves of three women – annotated below in red – have recently been found. The fact that they were moved from Muntok after the war proves that ‘cherry-picking’ took place with certain dead considered more worthy of re-burial than others.
(name/age/date of death)
Mrs Theresia ‘Resie’ Armstrong, 51, 7 February 1945
Miss Dixie Resie Armstrong, 32, 5 April 1945
Mrs Mary Awmack Battensby, 51, 11 Febuary 1945
Mrs Edith Florence Bedell, 65, 19 January 1945
Mrs Mary Elizabeth Brown, 67, 17 January 1945
Mrs Edith Evangeline Castle, 50, 19 November 1944
Mrs Marjorie Hindnaugh Cocke, 53, 5 March 1945 (grave located in Jakarta 19/05/13)
Mrs Mary Louise Day, 53, 16 December 1944
Mrs Helen Dixey, 48, 28 February 1945
Mrs Agnes Gertrude Dominguez, 63, 9 November 1944
Mrs Marjory Gray, 55, 13 January 1945
Mrs Murial Gregory, 43, 5 November 1944
Mrs Rena Rosie Haynes, 49, 10 January 1945
Mrs Kathleen Mary Hutchings, 46, 12 April 1945
Mrs Blanche Lucy Jones, 58, 8 December 1944
Miss Sabine Elizabeth MacKintosh, 57, 27 December 1944
Mrs Dorothy MacLeod, 59, 1 April 1945
Mrs Joan May Maddams, 36, 19 December 1944
Mrs Olga Mary Neubronner, 39, 2 March 1945 (grave located in Jakarta 19/05/13)
Mrs Evelyn Mary Parr, 38, 11 January 1945
Mrs Isobel Veronica Pennefather, 48, 15 March 1945
Mrs Sylvia Plummer, 42, 19 November 1944
Miss Eva Prouse, 49, 2 February 1945
Mrs Lillian Rodrigues, 46, 1 January 1945
Mrs Ruth Russell-Roberts, 36, 20 January 1945
Mrs Claire Sammy, 52, 18 November 1944 (grave located in Cimahi 19/05/13)
Mrs Esme Barbara Skinner, 38, 27 March 1945
Mrs Amy Alexandra Mary Simmons, 30, 26 February 1945
Mrs Louise Sinnatt, 32, 23 February 1945
Mrs Emily Elizabeth Smith, 72, 9 November 1944
Mrs Nellie Ellen Tay, 40, 21 November 1944
Miss Lottie Regina Wales, 48, 3 January 1945
Mrs Marion Galloway Langdon Williams, 46, 7 February 1945
Mr C. H. Adam, 5 October 1944
Mr Frederick Marshall Adam, 38, 25 January 1945
Mr John C. H. Aitken, 54, 25 November 1944
Mr Charles John Arnold, 70, 9 June 1944
Mr L. R. Blake, 47, 23 February 1945
Mr F. V. Boswell, 51, 10 July 1944
Mr Francis Grainger Brown, 44, 5 November 1944
Mr Lindsay Burn, 58, 8 November 1944
Mr Thomas Burns, 50, 22 October 1944
Mr Gordon Burt O.B.E., 46, 28 January 1945
Mr Colin Douglas Campbell, 53, 2 August 1944
Sir John Bruce Stuart Campbell, 66, 14 October 1943
Mr Richard James Potter Clarke, 56, 19 November 1944
Mr Vernon Rowe Connelly, 49, 17 October 1944
Mr John Gallagher Dominguez, 65, 11 September 1944
Mr Kenneth Gofrey Arthur Dohoo, 38, 25 October 1944
Mr Walter Pattinson Douglas, 55, 23 November 1944
Mr E. A. M. Dumas, Unknown, 1 December 1944
Mr Thomas Efford, 59, 24 November 1944
Mr Michael Francis Enright, 63, 24 January 1945
Dr David Richard Evans, 60, 30 July 1944
Mr John Samuel Evans, 37, 17 July 1944
Mr Frederick Fletcher, 70, 9 June 1944
Mr George Basil Warburton Gray, 62, 12 February 1944
Mr Cecil Reynold Grixoni, 43, 28 October 1944
Mr George Herny Hallam, Unknown, 18 July 1944
Mr Geoffrey Holderness, 45, 28 May 1944
Mr L. B. G. Jeffrey, 53, 2 May 1944
Mr Charles Martin Jenkin, 51, 17 November 1944
Mr Algernon Neville Laybourne, 54, 28 July 1944
Mr Frederick Lagharne Llewellyn, 48, 13 May 1944
Mr E. H. M. Manden, Unknown, 23 July 1944
Mr John McGuffin, 52, 8 March 1945
Mr Robert Meldrum, 49, 13 December 1944
Mr Jack Stephenson Messenger, 45, 2 November 1944
Mr Riley Llewellyn Morgan, 24 March 1945
Mr Robert Wallace Morris, 42, 8 June 1944
Mr Walter Penrice, 47, 20 July 1944
Mr Richard Henry Cozens Prior, 61, 15 August 1944
Mr Donald Frederick Pratt, 37, 1 May 1945
Mr Vincent Bristow Pybus, 11 November 1944
Mr C. G. Rebel, Unknown, 10 November 1944
Mr Gordon Stanley Reis, 55, 2 November 1944
Mr G. C. Spandaw, Unknown, 30 May 1944
Mr James Henry Stanners, 32, 22 January 1945
Mr Robert Stephenson, 47, 8 April 1945
Mr Frederick Thompson, 36, 27 November 1944
Mr Henry Stanley Tisshaw, 56, 24 November 1944
Mr W. Vorlauf, Unknown, 5 February 1945
Rev Albert Victor Wardle, 47, 4 January 1945
Mr Harry Leonard Watson, 31, 2 November 1944
Mr Hubert Victor Miles Woods, 43, 21 November 1943
Mr Thomas Kinnear Wilson, 53, 22 November 1944
Mr Alfred Herbert Wright, 44, 9 February 1945
Mr Herbert Zimmerman, 43, 11 June 1944
Further information and resources:
- A bibliography of books written by the survivors of the camps and researchers into Far Eastern internment, is available on the new ‘Singing to Survive’ website which specifically commemorates the 70th anniversary of the women’s vocal orchestra created by British women Norah Chambers and Margaret Dryburgh in the Palembang ‘barracks camp’ (the camp in which the women were incarcerated before they were returned to Muntok, where half of the orchestra members would die). The ‘Singing to Survive’ concert – Margie Caldicott and Lavinia Warner were two of the organisers – which had British women’s voices recreating the pieces first sung in captivity in December 1943 took place in Chichester in October 2013.
- A list of all the Sumatran internees is available here. N.B. This Sumatran Internees list does not include any Dutch internees. The Dutch government moved their graves to Jakarta in the 1960s. A list of the Dutch who were interned or who died in Muntok is not available.
- An account of Gordon Reis’s time in captivity, who died at Muntok in November 1944, is available here.
- Information about the experiences of Eva Prouse and Mary Glasgow who had formerly worked at Bukit Bintang Girls’ School in Kuala Lumpur can be read here.
- Jonathan Moffatt of the Malayan Volunteers Group is a wealth of information and very helpful to anyone who has a question about an internee.
Many thanks to Margie Caldicott, Judy Balcombe, Anthony Pratt, June Harfield, the Malayan Volunteers Group, and Lavinia Warner.
my grandfather was J.C.H. Aitkennow we know where he is buried thank you
Dear John, do you know which ship your Grandfather left Singapore on? Also, have you seen the camp diary of Gordon Reis, which can be read on-line? I hope to revisit Muntok in November and will take some more photos to post here. Best wishes, Judy Balcombe
Thanks for letting me know John. Judy – the diary link is now available from this page too.
These are the Christian names and ages of the internees whose names or ages are listed as ‘unknown’. The details are taken from the ‘Sumatran Internees’ list prepared by the Malayan Volunteers’ Group. Thank you, Judy Balcombe, Melbourne, Australia
Theresia ‘Resie’ Armstrong, died 7/2/1945 aged 51
Agnes Gertrude Dominguez, died 7/11/1944, born 1881, so died aged 63
Marjorie Gray, died 13/1/1945, aged 52 in 1942, so died aged 55
Lillian Rodrigues, died 1/1/1945, aged 46
Emily Elizabeth Smith, died 9/11/1944, aged 72
Lottie Regina Wales, died 3/1/1945, aged 48
Francis Grainger Brown, died 15/11/1944, aged 42 in 1942, so died aged 44
Lindsay Burn, died 14/11/1944, aged 58
Thomas Burns, died 22/10/1944, aged 50
Richard James Potter Clarke, died 19/11/1944, aged 56
Vernon Rowe Connelly, died 17/10/1944, aged 49
John Gallagher Dominguez, died 11/9/1944, born 1879, so died aged 65
Kenneth Godfrey Arthur Dohoo, died 25/10/1944, aged 38
Walter Pattison Douglas, died 23/11/1944, aged 55
E.A. M. Dumas, died 1/12/1944, age not given, Thomas Efford, died 24/11/1944, aged 59, Michael Francis Enright, died 24/1/1945, born 1882, so died aged 63, George Basil Warburton Gray, died 12/2/1944, aged 62, Cecil Reynold Grixoni, died 28/10/1944, aged 43, George Henry Hallam, died 18/7/1944, age not given, Geoffrey Holderness, died 28/5/1944, aged 45, L.B.G. Jeffery, died 2/5/1944 aged 53, Charles Martin Jenkin died 17/11/1944, aged 51, E.H.M.Manden, died 23/7/1944, age not given, Robert Meldrum, died 13/12/1944, aged 49, Jack Stephenson Messenger, died 2/11/1944, aged 45, Richard Henry Cozens Prior, died 16/8/1944, aged 61, C.G. Rebel, not on ‘Sumatran Internees List’ – maybe a Dutch man, as Dutch deaths were on a separate list, Gordon Stanley Reis, died 2/11/1944, aged 55, G.C. Spandaw, not on ‘Sumatran Internees List’, ? Dutch, James Henry Stanners, died 22/1/1945, aged 32, Robert Stephenson, died 8/4/1945, aged 47, Frederick Thompson, died 27/211/1944, aged 36, Henry Stanley Tisshaw, died 24/11/1944, aged 56, W. Vorlauf, died 5/2/1945, age not given, Reverend Albert Victor Wardle, died 4/1/1945, aged 47, Harry Leonard Watson, died 2/11/1944, aged 31, Thomas Kinnear Wilson, died 22/11/1944, aged 53, Herbert Zimmerman, died 11/6/1944, aged 43
Thanks Judy. I’ll add those in due course. Also a link to that online diary.
Now added Judy. Thank you. Andy
Dear Andy, I have had an email from Jonathan Moffatt of the Malayan Volunteers Group, who said he would be happy for the Sumatra Internees List complied by MVG to be added to the Muntok Graves website. It has a list of the civilians and nurses interned in Sumatra with biographical details. Thank you, Judy Balcombe
SUMATRA_INTERNEES_(_Version_1-1.1.0) (1) (Autosaved) copy.doc
http://www.malayanvolunteersgroup.org.uk/…/SUMATRA_INTERNEES_(…File Format: Microsoft Word – Quick View
With daughter Patricia Ann. aged 3, a Palembang Sumatra internee. Cross list notes “…(?) Died on 28.9.45 in Singapore…” L/Cpl Axon remained in Johore …
Dear Andy, I have had a request from her family to please ask you if Margory Gray’s name could please be re-spelt as ‘Marjory’, with ie on the end? Thank you, best wishes, Judy Balcombe
Sorry, Andy, I meant to ask for her name to have ‘y’ on the end, Thank you, Judy
best wishes – Andy
My great aunt Eva Prouse is amongst the women who died in this camp. She was the headmistress of Bukit Bintang Girls’ School (BBGS) Kuala Lumpur, she started in 1923. Some of the alumni of the school have put together some info http://www.back2bbgs.blogspot.com.au/search/label/History
It would be wonderful to visit the place where Eva died, as no one in our family has visited, my mother had wanted to but sadly she died before she could. Could you tell me if it is possible to visit the area where the camps were?
I am so pleased to find your website.
Dear Kaeleen, Andy Priestner has alerted me to your query about your great aunt Eva Prouse. It is possible to visit the areas of the Men’s and Women’s internment camps in Palembang and Bangka Island. You will know the Women were interned in old Dutch houses in Palembang and these houses are still lived in today. Next the Women were sent to the atap (palm leaf) huts nearby which had been built by the Men, who left the huts when they were sent back to Muntok. The former atap huts have now been built over by modern houses.
Do you know the website ‘East Indies Camp Archives’? There are old maps of Palembang and the internment camps. If you might like to send me your email, I can give you some more information.
In Muntok, the Men were interned in the old Muntok jail, which is still a jail today. The Women were interned in a atap camp, which is now a kampong, or village. The old well from the Women’s camp is still in place.
You may know we have taken memorial plaques to the groups of people who either died in the Bangka Straits, were killed at Muntok or who were interned there. These are general plaques but we are now in possession of the names of all the internees who were buried in the old Muntok Cemetery and would like to prepare and take plaques there in their memories.
An old cemetery plan shows that the Women, who were moved from their graves in the jungle next to the camp were buried at the front of the Muntok cemetery. In 1981, when the Pertamina petrol station was built, the remains of ’25 Casualties of War’ were found and given to the local Catholic Priest. The petrol station owner arranged to have these people reburied in a group grave in a Chinese cemetery in Muntok. We believe these are the graves of the Women from the Women’s camp – 4 Women were moved to Jakarta as their husbands were military or government officers, so ’25’ remaining is approximately correct.
The Muntok cemetery was photographed and lists of grave made by a visiting religious minister in 1968, so we believe the Men are still buried there, now under houses behind the petrol station.
Kaeleen, if you would like me to, I can send you details of the trips we have made to Palembang and Muntok. We hope to visit perhaps next year, to take the new plaques with the names of the individuals who died in Muntok.
Best wishes, Judy Balcombe
Thanks Judy that would be great, my email is firstname.lastname@example.org I will look at sites you have mentioned. I will keep in touch.
Thanks for your message. I know that Judy Balcombe who has commented above has visited the site of the old camps at Muntok and Palembang, although of course there are no structures still standing. I will add a link to the site you provided.
Your great aunt, Eva Prowse, lived in Garage 9 in Palembang (bungalow camp, Irenealaan) with my mother Shelagh Brown and grandmother, Mrs Mary Brown! Miss Prowse had a wonderful reputation with the teenagers in the camp as an inspiring teacher . Paddy Glasgow, a friend of hers wrote an account of their internment. have you seen it?
We have now discovered some graves moved from Muntok. They were moved to Jakarta War Cemetery :- Olga Neubronner (St John’s Ambulance). and Mrs Marjorie Hindhough Cocke (St.John’s Ambulance). Mrs Claire Sammy’s grave was also removed from Muntok. Judy and I continue to work on this list.
Thank you for the information Margie, yes my family have a copy of Paddy Glasgow war diary.
Dear Kaeleen, I would like to let you know of a planned memorial service to be held in Muntok, Banka Island, Indonesia next February 16, 2017. The service will commemorate the 75th anniversary of the bombing of the 40 ship carrying evacuees from Singapore, the killing of 21 Australian Army Nurses, a civilian woman and 2 groups of men at Radji Beach, Banka Island and the begining of the many terrible years of internment.Please feel free to email me on email@example.com if you would like more information about the service or the camps in general. Best wishes, Judy Balcombe
My grandfather was Sir John Bruce Stuart Campbell who apparently died in Muntok prison Banka Island on14th October 1943 aged 66. Does anybody have further information about his death? I would be most grateful for any information on the conditions in Muntok prison.
Dear Jeremy, Margie Caldicott told me you are seeking information about your grandfather Sir John Campbell. My grandfather Colin Douglas Campbell (no direct relation) also died in Muntok. I am in UK now, to attend the concert in Chichester on Oct 26th. I have been in contact with Fiona Bullen in Australia, the great-granddaughter of Sir John., who would be your niece? I will be back in Australia at the end of October and will be happy to let you know all the information we have about Sir John Campbell and the Palembang, Muntok and Belalau men’s camps.
It is good to hear from you. Dr Judy Balcombe will be able to give you information about the men’s camp and I can give you information about the graves . Please feel free to contact us. We are very interested in your Grandfather as well. The book “By eastern windows” by William H MacDougall is the book to read about the men’s camp.
Many thanks Margie for your assistance. I will let you know what transpires – Jeremy Rees
Thank you so much Judy. Yes Fiona Bullen is very much part of the JBS Campbell family being a great granddaughter and is my second cousin. I am grateful for the trouble you are taking to discover more information and good luck too with Colin. – sincerely Jeremy Rees
it’s awesome knowing this information. just read this post and i surely give you all support to recover your families. i’m from muntok but i don’t know about this.
I am writing in ref to my grandfather Leslie G G B Jeffery, who was a civilian engineer, working in China, but when the War started, offered his services to the British Navy in Singapore. We know he was taken captive, and died aged 53, but really not much more. Any additional info would be appreciated
Ps. His name is misspelt on the listing, he was Leslie.G.G.B Jeffery.
We are so interested that he and the rest of the forgotten will have a memorial
I am working on the list of names to place on the Muntok plaque. Could you please let me know your Grandfather’s full name. We are travelling to Muntok in September and will place the plaque on a specially refurbished grave.
Could you please let me have your email address so I can keep in touch and send you photos. My Grandfather also died in Muntok Men’s Camp (the Muntok jail).
Thank you, with best wishes, Judy Balcombe
My great aunt Mrs Thane, mother of Pamela Thane, died in captivity on either Sumatra, or Banka Muntok, but I don’t know which. Both of them were captured from the ship Mata Hari, and landed on Sumatra.
Dear Bernard, I would like to let you know of a planned memorial service to be held in Muntok, Banka Island, Indonesia next February 16, 2017. The service will commemorate the 75th anniversary of the bombing of the 40 ship carrying evacuees from Singapore, the killing of 21 Australian Army Nurses, a civilian woman and 2 groups of men at Radji Beach, Banka Island and the begining of the many terrible years of internment.Please feel free to email me on firstname.lastname@example.org if you would like more information about the service or the camps in general. Best wishes, Judy Balcombe
My great aunt, Mrs Thane, died in captivity on either Sumatra, or Banka Muntok. Both she and her daughter, Pamela Thane, were aboard the Mata Hari having been evacuated from Singapore when the ship was captured, and they were landed in Sumatra.
Your great aunt is on my Mother’s list as having died 20.4.45 in Belalau, a rubber estate near Loebuk Linggau, the last camp. The move to this camp in Sumatra after Muntok, where so many died , was the most terrible journey and took up to 3 days. The Dutch moved all these graves after the war. I then have her on a list of these graves moved to the dutch Cemetery ,Kalibanteng, Semerang, Java, as Grave no. 174?
After the opening of the Museum in 2015 we will visit this Cemetery to see the Belalau graves that were moved. If I find any more information I will tell you.
Margie, Thank you so much for your informative reply. I look forward to learning of your visit to the cemetery.
My Grandfather Richard James Potter Clarke was an internee at Palembang and it is fascinating to read everybody’s accounts. If anyone happens to know anymore about my Grandfather or my Grandmother who lived in Singapore I would love to hear from you. Many thanks Sue Armitage
Dear Sue, I hope this message reaches you. My Grandfather Colin Douglas Campbell was also interned in Palembang and Muntok camps and died in Muntok in August 1944. Did you know that your Grandfather died in Muntok camp – his name is on the plaque we are having made.We are visiting in September to take a plaque with the names of those who died in Muntok and are still buried there. I hope you may please like to reply to me and let me have your email address so I can tell you about the trip and send some photo of the plaque. With best wishes, Judy Balcombe, Melbourne, MVG member
My great aunt Eva Prouse and her fellow teacher and friend Mary Glasgow were missionary teachers at Bukit Bintang Girls’ School in Kuala Lumpur. I have an account of their time, both in the camps and earlier life in KL. It was written by Mary Glascow who survived, unfortunately my aunt is buried on Muntok. Kaeleen
We are visiting Muntok in September, for the opening of the Museum and to lay a plaque in memory of our family members who died 70 years ago. Contact Dr.Judy Balcombe or me if you wish to travel with us? There will be about 20 people in the party. We can also give copies of photos and a small biography of our family member for the Museum.
My grandfather was Harry Leonard Watson. It is very sad to find him on this list. In 1940 he was posted to Singapore Naval Base from the Admiralty as Senior Victualling Store Officer.
This is Judy Balcombe writing. My Grandfather also died in Muntok Men’s Camp, in August 1944. we have visited Muntok several times now and with the support of the local people and the Malayan Volunteers Group have placed plaques with the names of the British and Australian internees who died there (the Dutch graves were all moved to Jakarta) and helped to build the Peace Museum which opened last September. Perhaps you have found the Peace Museum website on http://muntokpeacemuseum ? David Man in USA, whose Grandfather Gordon Reis also died in Muntok ,is maintaining the website and hopes to write an article on each internee. I would be happy to write to you with more information about Muntok and photos of our trips and details of future visits there.Thank you, best wishes, Judy
Thank you so much for your reply. It is of some comfort that you have all been there. I would appreciate more information and updates. I am trying to piece the information I have together and your website has been a great help.
I am sorry, Emma – the website address should be http://muntokpeacemuseum.org
Best wishes, Judy Balcombe
Hello Emma, Could you please email me on email@example.com ? I would like to give you some more information about the Muntok and Palembang internment camps and to send you some photos. I have written to Neal Hobbs to ask if he remembers your Grandfather. He wrote to me a few weeks ago that he does remember 3 other men who worked for the Admiralty in Singapore, George Bryant, Alan Wrigley and Morgan Riley. George Bryant’s Grandson is visiting Muntok in April or May. I will look forward to hearing from you, with best wishes, Judy
I have a letter from Mr. Harley Clarke to my grandmother. He writes that he became good friends with my grandfather. In it he mentions a Mr Bryant.
I also have a letter from E. Paton (father to Tom Paton). In it he expresses his sympathy and writes about what little he knows. He does mention L.G. Haldane, R.L. Morgan, G.E Bryant and A. Wrigley
I also have some terrible I.O.U slips made out to MR M.C. Jasper. The last one was made out just two months before he died. I have them passed down fro my grandmother because he collected on them after the war.
She wrote ” These pathetic I.O.Us still make me feel bad – but I include them, because now they are a part of history.
Thank you, Emma, for your email. I will also write to you there. With best wishes from Judy